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Image by Bud Helisson

Approaches

Origins of Psychology Wundt

AO1

Father of modern Psychology

First Psychology lab, Leipzig Germany, 1879

Moved away from Philosophy

Standardised & controlled procedures e.g. metronome

Introspection

Paved way for structuralism

AO3

+ Attempted to be scientific

- Introspection - subjective

+ Contribution to Psychology as a scientific discipline

The Cognitive

Approach

AO1

Internal mental processes

Inferences from lab experiments

Importance of the role of schema - mental representations of knowledge

Computer analogy:

Input - Process - Output

Theoretical models e.g. MSM

Growth of cognitive neuroscience

AO3

+ Scientific methodology

+ Soft determinism

+ Real life application - CBT

- Machine reductionism

The Humanistic

Approach

AO1

Importance of free will

Subjective - rejects experiments

Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs - self actualisation

Rogers: The self

Self-esteem: Congruence between the self and ideal self

Conditions of worth

Unconditional positive regard

Led to person centred counselling 

AO3

+ Holistic approach

+ Positive approach to human condition

- Cultural bias: Western societies

- Lack of scientific evidence 

Learning approaches Behaviourism

AO1

Believe we born a blank slate - "tabula rasa"

Only focus on observable events

Rely on lab experiments (animals)

Classical conditioning: association by creating a CS - CR link

Pavolv's dogs

Operant conditioning: learning through consequences

Positive reinforcement - to repeat through reward

Negative reinforcement - to repeat  by removal of unpleasant consequence

Punishment - to stop

Skinner's boxes - rats & pigeons

AO3

+ Highly controlled research

+ Great explanatory power

- Environment reductionism

- Animal extrapolation

The Biological

Approach

AO1

Behaviour is a product of biological

Genetics - inherit predisposition, twin studies (concordance rates)

Genotype and phenotype

Evolutionary explanation - natural selection & adaptive traits

Neurotransmitters e.g. Serotonin

Hormones e.g. Aggression

Brain structures e.g. large ventricles and schizophrenia

AO3

+ Real world application e.g. drug therapies

+ Scientific methodology

- Biological determinist

- Evolutionary not testable

Learning approaches Social Learning Theory

AO1

Bandura: Learning through observing & imitating role models

More likely to imitate if identify

Vicarious reinforcement

Mediational process: Attention, Retention, Motor reproduction, Motivation (ARMM)

Bobo Doll study - aggression

AO3

+ More holistic than behaviourism

+ Real world application e.g. schools, addiction

+ Supportive evidence: Identification with role models is important: female blood donation

- Methodological issues of Bandura e.g. demand characteristics

The Psychodynamic Approach

AO1

Unconscious and innate drives shape behaviour

Iceberg analogy

Tripartite personality: Id (pleasure principle), Ego (reality principle) & Superego (morality principle)

Ego uses defence mechanisms; repression, denial & displacement

Psychosexual stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

Oedipus & electra complex

AO3

+ Contributions to talking therapies e.g. psychoanalysis / defence mec.

+ Great explanatory power

- Untestable concepts

- Psychic determinism

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